2. As stated in the text, a priority queue is a queue in which certain items are allowed to jump to the head of the line if they meet certain conditions. Devise a data structure and a suitable algorithm to implement a priority queue.
A suitable data structure to implement a priority queue is a binary heap. A binary heap is a binary tree-based data structure that satisfies the heap property, where each parent node has a value greater than or equal to its child nodes (in a max heap) or less than or equal to its child nodes (in a min heap).
Here's an outline of the data structure and algorithm to implement a priority queue using a binary heap:
Data Structure:
Operations: a) Insertion:
b) Deletion:
c) Peek:
Algorithm Complexity:
Using a binary heap-based implementation allows efficient insertion and deletion of elements while maintaining the desired priority order.
It's important to note that the above outline provides a basic framework, and there are variations and optimizations possible based on specific requirements. For example, you can implement a min heap or a max heap depending on the desired priority order, and additional operations like changing the priority of an element can be added as well.